Posts Tagged ‘evil’

 david hume

“Is [God] willing to prevent evil, but not able? Then he is impotent. Is he able, but not willing? Then he is malevolent. Is he both willing and able? Whence then is evil?” 

These are the words of the 18th Century Scottish philosopher, David Hume. Men and women have echoed his sentiments many times over the past centuries since he first expressed them. Known as the Philosophical ‘Problem of Evil’,  it as been recited as the reason to not believe the Bible and in the God it presents by students, professionals, and all other types of people. It does seem to speak to the human experience in a way other arguments do not. One thing is certain, whether one believes in God or not, evil is a very real problem for us all. Dr. Bahnsen takes Hume’s problem head on. The following is a brief handout I created for my audience during a talk on Bahnsen’s critique of Hume and his Problem of Evil. Much of the information here can be found in ‘Always Ready’ by Dr. Greg Bahnsen. It is critical for Christians to begin to learn how to engage unbelief and especially those arguments that have convinced so many for centuries. As Dr. Bahnsen demonstrates, the key to seeing Hume’s misunderstanding is found in the Scriptures and the revelation of God’s character and nature that they alone provide.

David Hume’s Challenge 

  1. If God is not able to stop evil then he is not all powerful.
  2. If God is able to stop evil but does not, he is not good.
  3. Evil exists. Therefore God is either not all powerful or he is not omnipotent. The Christian view of God is logically inconsistent.

“Briefly the problem of evil is this: If God knows there is evil but cannot prevent it, he is not omnipotent. If God knows there is evil and can prevent it but desires not to, he is not omnibenevolent. If, as the Christian claims, God is all-knowing and all-powerful, we must conclude that God is not good. The existence of evil in the universe excludes this possibility.” George H. Smith

Defining “Good”

In order to make the claim that there is evil in the world, one must have a presupposition that defines for them what exactly they mean by making a judgment as to what is or is not good.

Some popular definitions in culture and philosophy:

  1. Good is whatever evokes public approval. It is defined by the majority.
  2. Good is whatever evokes the approval of the individual.
  3. Good is whatever achieves a certain consequence. Such as the greatest happiness of the greatest number.

These ways of defining what is or isn’t good and therefore right or wrong just do not add up when trying to apply them to reality. For example, the only way we can know if something achieves the greatest happiness is to be able to record and test the feelings, opinions and consequences of every person in every instance, impossible even for computers. Also, we are still left with finding an agreed upon standard of what happiness and goodness are and if they are both necessary for the other….

We see all the time that the majority of a certain community may all agree that something is good, but it turns out to be very un-good. Making happiness about the individual’s subjective approval is clearly unsound. Some individuals approve of abusing children or murdering their loved ones. Also, this would mean there can never be a real discussion regarding what is good because every individual would have differing definitions (subjectivism).

The Christian worldview defines “good” as God’s character and person as revealed in the Bible. It is an objective absolute definition. We believe God is good because he himself is the source and standard of “good”.


“Philosophically speaking, the problem of evil turns out to be, therefore, a problem for the unbeliever himself. In order to use the argument from evil against the Christian worldview, he must first be able to show that his judgments about the existence of evil are meaningful-which is precisely what his unbelieving worldview is unable to do.” Greg Bahnsen (Christian philosopher, apologist and theologian)

Hume cannot answer his own problem. Evil is still happening and existing and it becomes an even bigger problem when it cannot be explained, or even worse, resisted and defeated. The Bible has more to say about God than Hume lets on. The Bible does affirm the goodness and power of God as well as the existence of evil. Hume however, fails to take into account the whole counsel of God as laid out in Scripture. This could be perhaps due to oversight, or maybe out of convenience but it still stands that Hume’s argument does not accurately represent the God of Scripture, whom he is claiming to disprove. God is omnibenevolent, omnipotent and it is revealed that the infinite God of Scripture is also mysterious. Bahnsen restates the problem in light of this missing premise:

Bahsen’s 4 premise argument for the existence of God in a world where Evil happens

  1. God is good.
  2. God is all-powerful (Omnipotent)
  3. Evil exists (happens)
  4. God has a morally sufficient reason for the evil which exists. (Though the reason is not revealed to us)

When all four of these premises are maintained there is no logical inconsistency within the Christian worldview. Indeed it is a natural thing for the Christian to grow in as a matter of their maturing in Christ.

“All things work together for good to those who love God and are the called according to HIS purpose.” Romans 8:28

“Shall not the Judge of the Earth do what is right?” Genesis 18:25

There is a real disdain in the modern world for mystery. This might be due to the claim by the Age of Enlightenment that human reason (science, rational thinking, ect.) is the solution to the problems of the world and the idea of a mystery means there are things beyond human reason. The truth is there is much we as finite beings can never understand. God does not reveal his reason(s) for allowing evil, and he doesn’t have to. He is a God who keeps his word (Psalm 12) he is a God who loves justice, Isaiah 61:8.

“For My thoughts are not your thoughts, Nor are your ways My ways,” declares the LORD. “For as the heavens are higher than the earth, So are My ways higher than your ways And My thoughts than your thoughts.”” Isaiah 55:8&9

“Can you fathom the mysteries of God? Can you probe the limits of the Almighty?” Job 11:7

Hume and atheists since him, have confidently charged Christianity with logical inconsistency. Bahnsen has demonstrated that this is not at all the case. God does not have to deal with evil as his creatures would like him to in order for him to be just. Hume may not like that God has his own mysterious reasons for dealing with evil, but he cannot any longer claim inconsistency. The problem of evil is not a logical one, it is psychological. The Atheist has issue with God’s sovereignty and authority as God and King over all the earth and humanity, not with his logic.

“The problem of evil comes down to the question of whether a person should have faith in God and his word or rather place faith in [their] own human thinking and values.” Greg Bahnsen

God of Justice

“For I, the Lord, love justice.” Isaiah 61:8

“For the Lord is righteous, he loves justice. The upright will see his face.” Psalm 11:7

“The Lord loves righteousness and justice; the earth is full of his unfailing love.” Psalm 33:5

We may not like how God is doing it, but Scripture is clear that God IS indeed the God of Justice. He has sent his Son, Jesus and his Spirit into the world in order to expose, judge and defeat evil, John 16. The non-believing worldview still has to answer the problem of evil. Their best attempts are to reduce evil to nothing more than “progress” or nature or mere inconvenience, which is no answer at all. Only the Christian worldview offers a solution while taking evil very seriously. So the Problem of Evil rather than disprove the existence of God, actually serves to bring us to Him and to choose whether to obey him and his word, or continue to walk in our own preferences and desires.


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In ancient literature, the sea is at times an image used to depict chaos and evil. The ancients, in common with their predecessors, had a hard time justifying and understanding the dark that seemed to exist inappropriately in their world. The Sea was a powerful and mysterious thing, completely out of human control. The great armies of the most powerful rulers on earth were powerless and themselves at the mercy of the sea. It was thought that monsters lived there and great storms could come out of nowhere, seemingly under the command of the gods, and swallow the largest and best equipped of ships, or entire fleets.  Every great people tells of their difficulties with the sea. From the mighty Egyptians of ancient times to our own Gulf Coast in recent years, it is known that the sea is powerful to destroy any who are too close or too comfortable. It is vast and even with modern technology and incredible amount of focus on it, the sea is still as much a mystery and out of human control as it was tens of thousands of years ago. Mankind is no match for the sea.

The Christian story is one full of this imagery. In the opening scene of Genesis there is nothing but the sea and the Spirit of God “moving over the waters”, Genesis 1:2. God’s power is displayed when he, with just a word, places the mighty sea within its boundaries therefore creating land. This is a reoccurring praise of God’s power and authority in Scripture as seen in Job 38:10, Proverbs 8:29 and Psalm 104:9. God is Lord of the sea. He alone has established its limits and he alone has authority over it.

The Exodus narrative acknowledges this with powerful and dramatic displays. The first plague in Egypt is one such example, Exodus 7. The mighty and life-giving Nile was the domain of Hapi, a favored god of the Egyptians. He was responsible for the waters flowing and bring the soil enriching silt every year. The annual flooding was known as the “arrival of Hapi”. He was, at a time in Egypt’s history known as the creator of all things. The Nile was turned to blood by the God of Israel as a direct overthrowing of Hapi from his place of authority. Even the god of the Nile, the loved and worshiped, Hapi, was not able to control the sea. This plague demonstrates that Yahweh alone is Lord. Indeed all the plagues of Exodus were direct challenges to and victories over the major deities of Egyptian culture.

The Red Sea would be a dead-end, resulting in death and misery, for any who found themselves between it and a vengeful and pursuing Egyptian army. The Israelites themselves saw their own death sentence as they stood before the waves of the sea, “they became very frightened”, Exodus 14:10, and they cried out to Moses, “Is it because there were no graves in Egypt that you have taken us away to die in the wilderness?” vs. 11. God was victorious over Hapi, he had demonstrated his authority over the Nile. What now of this enormous sea that expanded out before them? We know the story and indeed it is repeated and re-imagined all throughout the rest of Scripture. God has Moses raise his staff and the waters part before the people allowing them to cross unharmed. The Egyptians do not have the same experience, they are swallowed up by the deep as God brings the waters down upon them. It was believed by the Egyptians that Pharaoh was a god, yet he was not able to safely pass through, nor deliver his mighty army. He was no match for the sea, vs. 28.

There is a story about Jesus and the sea. His disciples are fishing and a storm breaks out over them suddenly. The storm was causing water to fill the boat and fear grips the disciples. They seem to be angry with Jesus who is sleeping, “Teacher, do you not care that we are perishing?”, Matthew 4:38. Jesus tells the storm to ““Hush, be still”. And the wind died down and it became perfectly calm.”, vs. 39. The disciples were afraid of the storm, and who could blame them? What is interesting is that they were more afraid once all was calm. For it is then they realized that they had with them in their boat one who could command and control the sea, “Who is this?”. But the story of Jesus and the sea does not end there.

Elsewhere in the New Testament the mission of Jesus is described as an Exodus.  Paul teaches this idea in Ephesian, Romans, I Corinthians, Titus, his letters to Timothy and even in Philemon. The author of Hebrews as well conveys that Jesus is a better Moses, Hebrews 3. Jesus delivers all Peoples, not just those of Israel. The Gentiles were in need of exodus from the bondage of their idolatry, and the Jews were in need of liberation from their worship of the Law as that which could make them God’s possession. Paul argues this in his letter to the Romans, chapter 3. Jesus would do more than deliver from political oppression and slavery, he would make all the nations free from sin and death. If death itself were to be defeated, then so also would all the lesser evil powers of the world. If he were to defeat death, then what would follow would be the obedience of the nations, Romans 1:1-5.

Jesus himself would enter the sea. He played this out with his own baptism and his time in the wilderness. As Israel went through the sea and then spent forty years wandering, so Jesus went through the waters of his baptism and into temptation, Matthew 3. It is on the cross that Jesus faced the great sea, evil itself. All of its fury and terror, injustice, betrayal, misery and death would come against Jesus as a great wave, smashing and breaking him. It did not hold back, it did its worse. The broken and bloody body of a would be King, washed lifeless upon the shore as so many before him. It seemed as though the sea would always be a scourge to humanity and a chaos to insult and denounce God’s authority and justice.

In his Gospel, John tells the story of Jesus and his ministry in a series of sections. These sections are to be seen as “days” of a week to make a point that Jesus is the means through which a new creation is coming. God’s new age of salvation has finally appeared. According to John, Jesus is laid in the tomb, he rest on the Sabbath. The week is over, ending in the tragic death of the one who would be both a new Adam and the Creator of a new world. John 20 is one of the most exciting texts in all of literature, for here John reveals that though one week has ended, a new one has begun. On the “first day of the week”, vs.1, it is discovered that the body of Jesus is not in the tomb. When the disciples are told this they run to the empty grave site to be met by an Angel who tells them that Jesus has risen. Jesus later on appears before them. Every one of the Gospels tell of Jesus eating and feeding, teaching and praying, appearing to a few on the road or even to a group of over 500 at once, I Corinthians 15:6. The phrase in John 20, “the first day of the week”, is to point us forward. The new world has come. Each of the Gospel writers invites regardless of where (or when) one may be, to join them in the new age, a world that has come as a result of the apocalyptic event(s) known as the ministry, death, resurrection and ascension of Jesus. Jesus has come and since he has risen nothing has ever been the same. The world, as it was known before him, has ended.

This brings us back to the sea. In John’s Revelation he tells of a new heavens and a new earth, ch. 21. The prophet Isaiah also tells of this, Isaiah 65:17. Like Isaiah, John’s vision of the new world is of a world very different from the old. Isaiah says that there will be no more weeping or infant death. There will be long life for most people. A world of justice and plenty, without calamity or famine. All will be as God originally intended for his world. In accord with Isaiah, John simply says,

“Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for the first heaven and the first earth passed away, and there is no longer any sea.” Revelation 21:1

No longer any sea. Other translations say, “the sea was no more”. When one observes how the image of the sea is used in the biblical narrative, what John is saying here is extraordinary. It has been demonstrated that in John 20 Jesus is the one through whom a new creation week has begun and that week has not ended. He is currently active in his mission, which is directly stated in Revelation 21:5, “Behold, I am making all things new”! The New heavens and New earth are being created now as Jesus is reigning from the throne of God. This new creation will be a place where, upon its completion, there will be no sea, evil will be evaporated from God’s good creation once and for all. The sea with all its chaos, terror and monsters, the sea that drowned the Son, has itself been swallowed up in his victorious resurrection. It is being evaporated from the earth through the activity of Jesus as King.

The sea is no more. What does this mean for his Spirit filled people? They too have come through the waters of baptism and now find themselves in the wilderness of a broken world. The Gospel is about the justice and power of God through the reign of Christ over the nations, Romans 1:5, 16&17. How does the power and the justice of God, revealed within the Gospel, go forth and do its work? It works through his obedient people. The Church has been given the very presence of God. The Shekinah that led the former slaves of Egypt through their wilderness now inhabits the Israel of God as they are sent into theirs, see John 17:22. Since the victory of Jesus, evil and death have no authority here. Fear and lack of faith must be cast away, since the saints are set apart as ones sent to complete the work of the King. An evaporating and diminishing sea seems to convey that Christ is working through his people to subject all authorities and powers, both earthly and spiritual, to himself (see I Corinthians 15:24-28). When the sea rages and floods communities and even a society, the faithful are called and equipped to stem the tide. They are the ones who are called to stand between an oppressive authority and defenseless people. They are the ones who are called to feed the hungry and poor, clothing them with all they have. They are the ones who must stand and demonstrate the liberty and beauty of God’s Law as the standard for all human societies for the civil government, Church, family and the individual. There exists a power and a liberation in the truth of the Gospel of King Jesus, the good news that his Kingdom has come. It is a Kingdom that is everlasting and will never be defeated, Daniel 7:14. In his Kingdom the sea is no more.

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Miroslav Volf, Professor of Theology at Yale Divinity School, talks about the risky yet powerful path of forgiveness.

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